潘公免灾寶卷 - J202

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Pan Gong mian zai bao juan
別名 Other Titles: 免災寶卷, 潘公免災救難寶卷
製造人物 Creators: None Known

出版地區 Place(s) of Publication: 姑蘇, 蘇州, Suzhou

版式 Format: 木版

出版者 Publisher(s): 元妙觀內得見齋書房

出版年 Publication Date: 1858

載於 Located In: Minjian baojuan - J Volume 15, pp. 281-318.

Pan Gong mianzai baojuan is a three-volume baojuan composed after the fall of Nanjing in 1853 to the Taipings. In the first volume, Pan Gong appears in dreams to warn a relative of the Nanjing’s impending fall, detailing how to live morally in order to be among those who avoid the coming disaster. The middle volume directly addresses the fall of Nanjing and the moral flaws in those who died, and the final volume consists of Pan Gong lecturing his tenants on morality.

別名 Other Titles

The title page, pictured right, gives the title as 潘公免災寶卷。 On the center of each page(版心), the shortened title in this edition is 免災寶卷. However, on the first page of each of the three volumes, the full length title is 潘公免災救難寶卷。 In What Remains: Coming to Terms with Civil War in 19th Century China, Tobie Meyer-Fong renders the title in English as: "The Precious Scroll in which Mr. Pan [explains] How to Avoid Catastrophe."

出版地區 Place(s) of Publication

The location given on the title page is 姑蘇,a former name for Suzhou 蘇州。

出版年 Publication Date(s)

The date on the title page, 咸豐八年校正重鐫, corresponds with 1858-02-14 to 1859-02-02.

內涵 Contents

  • 封面 Title Page
  • 潘公遺像 Pan Gong posthumous portrait
  • 序 「公姓潘氏諱...」
  • 序 「潘公上中下...」
  • 劫海慈航圖 Illustration of the Mercy Boat on the Sea of Disaster
  • 潘公托夢圖 Illustration of Pan Gong Sending a Dream
  • 贊曰「現宰官身為...」
  • 潘公免災救難寶卷卷上 (1a-24b)
  • 潘公免災救難寶卷卷中 (1a-25b)
  • 新刻潘公免災救難寶卷卷下 (1a-20b)
  • Donor list (20b)

序跋等 Prefaces and Postfaces

  • 序 「公姓潘氏諱...」
    • 咸豐乙卬春王正月
    • 梁溪晦齋氏拜題
  • 序「潘公上中下...」
  • 贊曰 「現宰官身為...」
    • 晦齋居士題

註疏 Commentary


There is no explicit authorial attribution within the text. However, 賴進興 (Lai Jin-xin), in her 2005 MA thesis [1] makes a convincing case for attributing this baojuan, along with two others, to late Qing moralist Yu Zhi 余治 (1809-1874). This particular edition, printed by Dejian zhai 得見齋 in 1858, is one piece of evidence used in this case, as 晦齋氏 and 晦齋居士 are both studio names used by Yu Zhi. Most of Yu Zhi's signed publications were also first printed at this publishing house. Also, internally, the text bears many hallmarks of his writing style and perspective.

Pan Gong/Pan Zengyi

The real-life Pan Zengyi 潘曾沂 (1792-1853), deified in this as the heavenly functionary Pan Gong, died on 咸豐二年12月20日 (January 28, 1853). Pan Zengyi did not have a successful career in the Qing bureaucracy, but he developed a significant reputation throughout Jiangnan for his philanthropy. [2] Pan Zengyi’s father, Pan Shi’en 潘世恩 (1770-1854) served a number of high positions at court in Beijing, and was eventually promoted to Grand Secretary (1833-1850), and made a Grand Councilor (1834-1849). [3] Pan Zengyi’s nephew, Pan Zuyin 潘祖蔭 (1830-1890), was a central figure in Taiping and post-Taiping gentry-official patronage networks in Jiangnan and Beijing. [4]


Pan Zengyi was a devout Buddhist. This baojuan draws on Pan’s reputation for Buddhist piety and good works as in an attempt to reframe the system of heavenly moral arithmetic repeated throughout Yu Zhi's works within the new context of heavenly mercy, not just of the heavenly bureaucrats striving to strike names from their ledgers of individuals deserving punishment, but of Guanyin’s all-encompassing grace, sailing out into the stormy sea of disaster on her boat of compassion, saving drowning sinners from death.

Written in the midst of violent conflict, long before Qing restoration was a foregone conclusion, condemnation of those who died in the Taiping invasion of Jiangnan as having deserved it for their moral failings serves as an explanation for the war without having to acknowledge the Taiping's political claims. The vivid poetry commemorating the fall of Nanjing in the second volume becomes part memorial ode, part desperate warning to those still living to watch their world crumble, wondering why it happened and how they might save themselves from similar fates.

For more analysis of themes in this text, see Chapter 2, "Words," in Tobie Meyer-Fong, What Remains: Coming to Terms with Civil War in 19th Century China (English edition, 2013) (Chinese edition, forthcoming) and Chapter 3, "Moralizing the Immoral: Vernacular Literature and Confucian Conservatism" in Katherine Alexander's PhD dissertation Virtues of the Vernacular: Moral Reconstruction in Late Qing Jiangnan and the Revitalization of Baojuan.


  1. 晚清江南士紳的慈善事業及其教化理念─以余治(1809-1874)為中心
  2. See 王卫平 “ 清代江南地区慈善事业慈善家系谱- 以潘曾沂为中心的考察” Xin huawen diao, 18 (2009): 61-65.
  3. See Eminent Chinese of the Ch’ing Period, 2:607-608
  4. See James Polachek, “Gentry Hegemony: Soochow in the T’ung-chih Restoration” in Conflict and Control in Late Imperial China.

參考文獻 Bibliography

Hummel, Arthur W. Eminent Chinese of the Chʻing Period (1644-1912). Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1943.

Lai Jinxing 賴進興. “Wan Qing Jiangnan shishen de cishan shiye ji qi jiaohua linian – yi Yu Zhi (1809-1874) wei zhongxin." 晚清江南士紳的慈善事業及其教化理念-以余治(1809-1874)為中心. MA thesis, National Cheng Kung University, 2005.

Meyer-Fong, Tobie S. What Remains: Coming to Terms with Civil War in 19th Century China. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2013.

Polachek, James. “Gentry Hegemony: Soochow in the T’ung-Chih Restoration.” In Conflict and Control in Late Imperial China, edited by Frederic Wakeman, Jr. and Carolyn Grant, 211–56. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1975

Wang, Weipin 王卫平. ““Qingdai Jiangnan diqu de cishanjia xipu – yi Pan Zengyi wei zhongxin de kaocha." 清代江南地区慈善事业慈善家系谱- 以潘曾沂为中心的考察. Xin huawen diao, 18 18 (2009): 61–65.

電子全文 Digital Fulltext

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有關書刊 Parallel Texts

潘公免災寶卷 - F63 (facsimile of same edition - confirmed via woodblock cracks)

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